Abridged : Neurotoxicity ResearchNeurodegeneration, Neuroregeneration, Neurotrophic Action, and Neuroprotection© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 201110.1007/s12640-011-9264-9Omar M. E. Abdel-Salam1 , Neveen A. Salem1 and Jihan Seid Hussein2(1)Department of Toxicology and Narcotics, National Research Centre, Tahrir St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt (2)Department of Medical Biochemistry, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
The dipeptide aspartame (1-methyl N-L-alpha-aspartyl-Lphenylalanine) is a low-calorie sweetener that is widely used in human foods and beverages. The present study provides the evidence that the dietary sweetener aspartame increases oxidative stress in the brain of mice. In summary, findings in the present study suggest that in LPS-treated mice, aspartame significantly increases the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitrite in brain. In addition, aspartame itself impairs cellular antioxidant status because of the decreased brain levels of GSH, and glucose. Thus, aspartame increases oxidative stress in brain which could have important implications in view of the fact that oxidative stress is implicated in various brain pathologies and that the agent is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners in human foods and drinks. Evidence is accumulating with regard to supporting an important role for oxidative stress and increased inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of several brain diseases and neurodegenerative disorders.
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For Release: November 26, 2012 ### The American Academy of Pediatrics is an organization of 60,000 primary care pediatricians, pediatric medical subspecialists and pediatric surgical specialists dedicated to the health, safety and well-being of infants, children, adolescents and young adults. For more information, visit www.aap.org.
Children encounter pesticides every day and are uniquely vulnerable to their toxicity. A new policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) outlines the harmful effects of pesticides on children and makes recommendations on how to reduce exposure. The policy statement, “Pesticide Exposure in Children,” and an accompanying technical report are published in the December 2012 issue of Pediatrics (released online Nov. 26). (more…)
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Dietary intake and its contribution … [Environ Health Perspect. 2008] – PubMed – NCBI http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1367841/ “Children with higher levels of the pesticide malathion in their urine seem to be at an increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD” http://articles.latimes.com/2010/may/16/science/la-sci-pesticides-201005
- PubMed comprises more than 22 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
- How about instead of giving children drugs they give children organic food? “By substituting organic fresh fruits and vegetables for corresponding conventional food items, the median urinary metabolite concentrations were reduced to nondetected or close to non-detected levels for malathion and chlorpyrifos at the end of the 5-day organic diet intervention period”
- “In conclusion, we were able to demonstrate that an organic diet provides a dramatic and immediate protective effect against exposures to organophosphorus pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural production. We also concluded that these children were most likely exposed to these organophosphorus pesticides exclusively through their diet.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1367841/ “Children with higher levels of the pesticide malathion in their urine seem to be at an increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD” http://articles.latimes.com/2010/may/16/science/la-sci-pesticides-20100517
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National Pesticide Information Center http://npic.orst.edu/health/child.html
All pesticides have some level of toxicity, and pose some risk to infants and children. The risk depends on the toxicity of the pesticide ingredients and how much of the pesticide a child is exposed to.
Pesticides come in many forms but all are, by design, toxic to living organisms. In our efforts to rid our crops, homes, and gardens of weeds and pests, we have surrounded ourselves with mixtures of chemicals with only a minimal understanding of how they affect our health. Annually, Americans use more than 4.5 billion pounds of pesticides, including about 1 billion pounds of “conventional” pesticides used in agriculture, industry, home and garden. Every day, we are unknowingly exposed to a variety of pesticides in our food, drinking water, homes, schools, and offices.
Pesticides and Children- Most households use some form of pesticide such as insect repellant, weed killer or a flea collar for the pet. However, there are pesticides in many other products as well. Treated wood for playgrounds and tree houses, soap, pool chemicals, shelving paper, even the waxy coating on fruits and vegetables contain some level of pesticides. We are exposed to these low levels of pesticides every day without fully understanding the dangerous health effects they may have.
There is mounting evidence for a wide range of health effects. It is clear that developing fetuses, infants and young children are particularly sensitive to the harmful effects of pesticides. When exposed to a toxic chemical, children are much more likely to experience an adverse health reaction at lower doses than adults. Developing and growing bodies are much more susceptible to pesticide contamination than grown bodies.
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By I. Leslie Rubin, MD Leslie Rubin MD is President and Founder of the Institute for the Study of Disadvantage and Disability (ISDD), Research Associate Professor in the Department of Pediatrics at Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia, and Co-director of the Southeast Pediatric Environmental Health Unit (PEHSU) in the Department of Pediatrics at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, and Medical Director of Developmental Pediatric Specialists in Atlanta.
Environmental factors can have an effect at any time in the process of brain development, however, the earlier the stage of brain development the greater will be the impact on brain structure and function. Thus, the fetal brain is most vulnerable to chemical and infectious agents present in the maternal circulatory system.
This intergenerational pattern contributes significantly to Environmental Health Disparities and can be viewed as a cycle. It challenges us, as responsible members of society, to improve the opportunities for children to reach their full potential by eliminating environmental hazards, reducing exposure to stress, improving education, raising public awareness and influencing public policy.
The human brain is so complex that is takes almost two decades before it stops growing. What begins as a neural tube in the early embryonic stage of development evolves into a complex set of networks that serve as a coordinating center for the maintenance of organ function and for the physical and physiological processes that assure survival and success of the individual and the species.
Early fetal brain development is critically dependent on proliferation of cells – neurons – which then elaborate axons and dendrites to form the network of connections and communications between cells. The process of neuronal cell migration in the brain not only enhances the number and complexity of connections between the cells, it also creates the infrastructural spatial relationships that optimize function. The next step in the process of brain growth and development is the insulation of fatty tissue on the nerve extensions to enhance the speed of transmission of impulses between the neurons. (more…)
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By Philip J. Landrigan, MD MSc This essay is adapted from: American Academy of Pediatrics Council on Environmental Health. Emerging Technologies and Materials. In: Etzel, RA, ed. Pediatric Environmental Health, 3rd Edition. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2012:749-755.
REFERENCES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Atlanta, 2001 www.cdc.gov/nceh/dls/report.
Chemical production has increased dramatically in the past half century. Today, there are more than 80,000 chemicals registered with the EPA for commercial use. Commercial introduction and wide dissemination of these new chemicals preceded any systematic effort to assess their potential toxicity. Especially absent were advance efforts to examine possible impacts on children’s health or potential to disrupt early development.
Children are most at risk of exposure to the 3,000 synthetic chemicals produced in quantities of more than 1 million pounds per year. EPA classes these materials as high-production-volume (HPV) chemicals. HPV chemicals are found in consumer goods, cosmetics, medications, motor fuels and building materials. They are detectable in much of the US in air, food, and drinking water. Public Health and the Safe Chemicals Act
These chemicals are also finding their way into our bodies. Measurable quantities of several hundred HPV chemicals are routinely found in the blood and urine of virtually all Americans (CDC, 2008). Elevated levels of HPV chemicals are seen also in the breast milk of nursing mothers and the cord blood of newborn infants (Environmental Working Group, 2005). (more…)
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The Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units (PEHSU) are a source of medical information and advice on environmental conditions that influence children’s health. PEHSUs are academically based, typically at university medical centers, and are located across the United States, Canada and Mexico. These PEHSUs form a network that is capable of responding to requests for information throughout North America and offering advice on prevention, diagnosis, management, and treatment of environmentally-related health effects in children.
PEHSU Program Coordinator
Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units
c/o Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics
1010 Vermont Ave. NW, #513
Washington, DC 20005
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