Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: a consensus statement. This Statement of Concern is directed to scientists, physicians, and regulatory officials around the world. We highlight changes in the scope and magnitude of risks to humans and the environment stemming from applications of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs)
Pharmacokinetic studies project and monitor the levels of a chemical absorbed by an organism (via ingestion, inhalation, dermal absorption, or some other route of exposure), how the chemical is distributed throughout the body to specific tissues (measuring the concentrations in different organs and in the blood), how the chemical is metabolized (including which metabolites are produced, and whether the presence of these metabolites and their relative abundance is dependent on route of exposure), and finally, how a compound is excreted (e.g., in feces or urine). Pharmacokinetic studies provide a valuable link between estimates of exposure, toxicity studies, and estimates of human risk.
The process of establishing testing protocols for endocrine-mediated impacts has been underway in the U.S. since 1997, in response to a mandate in the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act to consider such effects in assuring a “reasonable certainty of no harm” for pregnant women, infants, and children. Seventeen years later, the EPA remains years away from codifying a new battery of tests capable of identifying the risk of low-dose, endocrine-disruption driven effects.
John Peterson MyersEmail author, Michael N. Antoniou, Bruce Blumberg, Lynn Carroll, Theo Colborn, Lorne G. Everett, Michael Hansen, Philip J. Landrigan, Bruce P. Lanphear, Robin Mesnage, Laura N. Vandenberg, Frederick S. vom Saal, Wade V. Welshons and Charles M. BenbrookEmail author Environmental Health201615:19
DOI: 10.1186/s12940-016-0117-0© Myers et al. 2016