- AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, HI, IL, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MO, NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OR, RI, VT, and WA.
- AK, CO, OR, and WA.
- AZ, CO, CT, DE, IL, ME, MA, MN, NV, NH, NJ, NM, OR, VT, and WA states.
- AK, CA, HI, MI, MO, and RI.
- Ferner, Ma . 2015. Hu ngton Post. Legal Marijuana is the Fastest-Growing Industry in the U.S.: Report. h p://www.hu ngtonpost.
- DE, MA, NH, NJ, and VT.
- DE, NJ, and VT. Personal communica on with state regulators suggeststhat the laws ci ng “pes cide” prohibi on are referring to “federally registered” pes cides and may allow pes cides exempt from federal registra on, known as FIFRA 25(b) pes cides.
- Delaware: Title 16 Health and Safety, 4470 State of Delaware Medical Marijuana Code, 7.1.4 “Use of pes cides is prohibited: There are no pes cides authorized for use on marijuana; as such, a compassion center shall not apply pes cides in the cul va on of marijuana.”New Jersey: Adopted New Rules NJAC 8:64 -10.9 Pes cide Use Prohib- ited “Inasmuch as there are no pes cides authorized for use on marijua- na, and the unauthorized applica on of pes cides is unlawful, an ATC shall not apply pes cides in the cul va on of marijuana.”
Vermont: Rules Governing the Vermont Marijuana Program, Sec on 6 “No pes cide use. There are no pes cides authorized for use on mari- juana, and unauthorized applica on of pes cides is unlawful.”
- Ogg, Clyde L. et al. 2012. Managing the Risks of Pes cide Poisoning and Understanding the Signs and Symptoms. University of Nebraska Exten- sion. h p://ianrpubs.unl.edu/live/ec2505/build/ec2505.pdf.
- CT, IL, NV.
- Oregon: “A sample of usable marijuana shall be deemed to test posi vefor pes cides with a detec on of more than 0.1 parts per million of any
- Cai, Jibao et al. 2002. Determina on of pyrethroid residues in tobaccoand cigare e smoke by capillary gas chromatography. DOI: 10.1016/
- Lorenz, W. et al. 1987. Thermolysis of Pes cide Residues During TobaccoSmoking. Chemosphere. Vol.16, Nos.2/3, pp 521-522, 198.
- Rodgman, Alan and Perfe , Thomas. 2013. The Chemical Componentsof Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke, Second Edi on. Page 1105, Table 21.2
Degrada on Products of Pes cides in MSS.
- Sulivan, Nicholas et al. 2013. Determina on of Pes cide Residues inCannabis Smoke. Journal of Toxicology. Volume 2013 (2013), Ar cle ID
378168, 6 pages h p://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2013/378168/.
- For more of Beyond Pes cides take on risk assessment in FIFRA, seeKepner, John and Feldman, Jay. 2006. Taking o the Blindfold, EPA ignores
toxic exposures in risk assessment. Pes cides and You. Beyond Pes cides.
- See Wisconsin Public Intervenor, et al., Pe oners v. Ralph Mor er et al.501 U.S. 597 (1991).
- See Porter, Ma . 2014. State Preemp on Law. Pes cides and You.Beyond Pes cides.
- Environmental Protec on Agency. 2014. Minimum Risk Pes cides.h p://www.epa.gov/pes cides/biopes cides/regtools/25b_list.htm.
- Lindsey, Tonya D. 2012. Medical Marijuana Cul va on and Policy Gaps. California Research Bureau. h p://www.canorml.org/prop/CRB_Pes -cides_on_Medical_Marijuana_Report.pdf.
- It appears that the reference to “pes cides” in California is to federallyregistered pes cides and not not those exempt from federal registra on
(25(b) pes cides) and not registered by the state of California.
- Washington State Department of Agriculture. 2014. Criteria for Pes cidesUsed for the Produc on of Marijuana in Washington. h p://agr.wa.gov/
- State registra on, with the excep on of California, is simply a licensingprocess and does not impose independent toxicological or environmen-
tal assessments as a rou ne.
26. EPA and WSDA registra on is required: (i) Prior to distribu on of the
pes cide; (ii) Prior to plan ng marijuana outdoors (such as a eld), use
of a pes cide (e.g.,broad spectrum herbicide, soil fumigant) is allowed if the food crop to be planted following applica on is not speci ed on the label; (iii) Prior to plan ng marijuana in an enclosed facility (such as a greenhouse), use of a pes cide (e.g., disinfectant, sani zer) is allowed to control microorganisms on surfaces (such as benches, oors, pallets, pots, skids).
Use of a pes cide on marijuana is allowed if: (i) The ac ve ingredient is exempt from the requirements of a tolerance (e.g., auxins, biopes cides [most ac ve ingredients], copper, cytokinins, gibberellins, petroleum oil, phosphorous acid, pyrethrins, soap, sulfur), and (ii) The label has direc ons for use on unspeci ed food crops, home gardens or herbs (outdoor or enclosed), including unspeci ed food crops or herbs grown as bedding plants. (Marijuana will not be speci cally listed as a crop on the pes cide label.)
Sec on 25b minimum risk pes cides (exempt from federal registra- on): (i) WSDA registra on is required prior to distribu on of the pes cide; (ii) Use on marijuana is allowed if the product is labeled for use on unspeci ed food crops,home gardens or herbs (outdoor or enclosed), including unspeci ed food crops or herbs grown as bedding plants. (Marijuana will not be speci cally listed as a crop on the pes – cide label.)
27. Colorado Department of Agriculture Plant Industry Division. 2014. Proposed Rule: Criteria for Determining the Legal Use of Pes cides in Marijuana Cul va on. 8 CCR 1203-25.
28. The consumable product of the cannabis plant is the ower, which is produced a er the vegeta ve stage. Barring pes cide applica ons a er the vegeta ve stage prevents pes cide applica ons from being made directly to the end-use product.
29. Washington State University Pes cide Informa on Center Online. 2014. WA I502 list. h p://cru66.cahe.wsu.edu/labels/Labels.php?SrchType=.
30. The product in ques on is Messina Wildlife’s Mole and Vole Stopper. h p://cru66.cahe.wsu.edu/~picol/pdf/WA/54761.pdf.
31. h p://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2008- tle40-vol23/xml/CFR- 2008- tle40-vol23-sec180-905.xml.
32. Beyond Pes cides. 2006. ChemicalWATCH Factsheet – Piperonyl Butox- ide. h p://www.beyondpes cides.org/pes cides/factsheets/Pipero- nyl%20Butoxide.pdf.
33. Environmental Protec on Agency. 2014. Pes cides: Environmental E ects. Ecological Risk Assessments. h p://www.epa.gov/pes cides/ ecosystem/ecorisk.htm.
34. AZ, CO (medical), CT, IL, ME, MA, MN, NV, NH, NJ, OR, and WA. 35. AZ, CO (medical), NV, and WA.
36. Ricker, Nok-Noi. 2013. Maine marijuana growing center cited for
using pes cides. Bangor Daily News. h p://bangordailynews. com/2013/03/25/news/state/maine-marijuana-cul va on-center-used- pes cides-state-o cial-says/.
37. CT, MA, ME, NH, and NM.
38. Since federally registered pes cides may be used in organic agriculture,
their use in cannabis produc on (a non-labeled used) should be consid- ered an illegal applica on, except that EPA allows some pes cides to be used on “unspeci ed crops.”
39. CT, ME, MA, NV, NH, NJ, and WA.
40. Note that most states address pes cide use on cannabis through rules
or regula ons, which are subject to change. This analysis does not address other cannabis related issues such as user access, caretakers, ability to grow your own, licensing fees, or taxes.
41. Statement must read: “The marijuana product contained within this package has not been tested for contaminants.”
42. Karnes, Ma hew. 2014. State of the Emerging Marijuana Industry Current Trends and Projec ons. GreenWave Advisors. h ps://www.gre- enwaveadvisors.com/wp-content/uploads/GreenWave_Report_ES.pdf.
Vol. 34, No. 4 Winter 2014-15 Pesticides and You
A quarterly publication of Beyond Pesticides